Got Milk?

Got Milk?

Now that’s a question that has received tons of controversy in the past 30 years. Is milk really good for you? Does it make you fat? Does it make you thin? Does it play a role in cancer or heart disease? Does it help promote bone development? Is whole milk better? Is skim milk better? What about pasteurization and homogenization? One day, milk is good for us. The next day, milk is bad for us. I will be honest, in my own personal research on milk, for every article I find praising milk, I can find another one tearing it apart. So, what should we believe? What is the truth?

Well, the truth is milk can be good and milk can be bad for us. Huh? I believe the difference depends on some very important questions. Ask yourself, where does the milk come from (organic and pastured-fed or conventional and grain-fed), are their additives (synthetic Vitamin A, D, and thickeners like carrageenan), has it been pasteurized and homogenized, is it whole fat or skim, and finally, what if the person drinking the milk has a milk intolerance? The question of, is milk really good for us? depends on so many variables. So, for us to make an educated decision on choosing or not choosing to add milk to our diet we need to understand a few things…

Organic and pasture-fed vs. conventional grain-fed milk.

As I discussed in a previous blog, Where is the grass-fed beef? pastured, grass-fed cattle produce a far superior product than commercial, grain-fed cattle. This is not only true in the meat they produce, but also in the milk they produce. One of the big reasons for this is pastured, hormone-free cows produce less milk than commercial cows, but the milk is richer in vitamin content. When farmers try to increase their milk production by using synthetic hormones like rBTH (recombinant bovine growth hormone), selective breeding, and an energy-dense grain diet, they end up increasing the milk volume, BUT diluting the nutritional content of the milk. This means less Vitamin A, D, Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, B2, B12, and phosphorous in the conventionally farmed milk. This is one of those times when less is more.

In addition, grass-fed pastured cows produce milk that has higher levels of CLA (conjugated linoleic acid). CLA is a family of at least 28 isomers of linoleic acid that is best known for its anti-cancer and anti-inflammation properties. In a 1999 study by the Journal of Dairy Science, it was concluded that cows grazing on pasture and receiving no supplemental feed had 3 to 5 times more CLA in their milkfat than cows fed a grain diet. In many animal and human studies, CLA has been shown to not only slow the growth of cancer on the skin, breast, prostate and colon, but also help in weight loss and increased metabolism.

*Just a side note, many people take a synthetic version of CLA that is widely promoted as a diet aid and muscle builder. New research shows that the type of CLA in the pills may have some potentially serious side effects, including promoting insulin resistance, raising glucose levels, and reducing HDL. Just another reason to eat real food and toss out your expensive supplements.

Finally, organic, grass-fed pastured milk is free of any hormones (free of rBGH) and antibiotics. We should assume what goes in the cow, will end up in the milk, which will eventually end up in us. The hormone rBGH has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer in humans. The additive has been banned in Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Australia, and the entire European Union — yet, here in America, it is widely used in the conventionally farmed dairy industry.

As you can see, grass-fed organic milk is an entirely different product than conventional grain-fed milk. From what I have read, most of the negative research on milk has been on conventional grain-fed milk. So the question is… Is it really the milk that is bad for us? Or is it how we’re treating the cows?

Lets keep going…

Milk additives.

Most milk products contain some form of synthetic vitamin A and D. Yes, this is even true for some organic brands. Due to their lower fat content, US law requires most organic low-fat and skim milks to be fortified with additional Vitamin A and D. All conventionally farmed milk products, including whole, low fat, and skim milk varieties, are fortified with Vitamin A and D.

What does this mean to you?

According to Josh Rubin of East West Healing and Performance, many people have an inflammatory response to these synthetic vitamins. Some are very cheap and many come from overseas where the quality standards are much lower than the United States. The FDA reports that less than 20% of these overseas vitamins are actually regulated by their standards. The only milk products I have found that have no Vitamin additives are all raw organic milk products and some pasteurized whole milk products. Just another reason to read your food labels.

In addition, some milk products, including skim, low fat versions, and chocolate milk contain carrageenan. If you have not already read my Carrageenan blog, Carrageenan is natural emulsifier and thickener used in many products. It has been linked to several types of cancer, arthritis, ulcerations of the intestines, and many other issues. Once again, is it the milk you are drinking OR the additives in the milk that are making it unhealthy for you?

Pasteurization.

Pasteurization is a process of heating a food, usually a liquid, to a specific temperature for a specific length of time and then cooling it immediately. The purpose is to kill off all harmful bacteria and pathogens. The problem is that pasteurization also kills the good bacteria (probiotics); alters the enzymes, proteins, fats, and sugar in milk, and creates a dead food. Non-pasteurized (raw) milk consumption has been shown to positively influence the immune system’s resistance to the development of asthma, hay fever and atopic sensitzation (skin allergy). In fact, many cultures use raw milk as a homeopathic healing food.

The only positive thing about pasteurization is that it allows for a longer shelf life. Raw milk, due to it being a live food, will spoil much faster. Remember, the improved shelf live is a big plus for the commercial dairy farmer. Longer lasting milk = less spoiling = more money.

Is pasteurized milk really safer than raw milk? I believe raw milk and pasteurized milk are equally susceptible to contamination. The only way to make milk safe is to keep it clean —clean cows and clean dairies. Instead, to make things easier, we kill a lot of the good in milk and produce a less healthy product.

Whole fat milk vs. low fat and skim milk

One of the many reasons milk has received such a bad name is due to its saturated fat content. Saturated fat has received a bad name because it has been linked to increase cholesterol, heart disease, and heart attacks. However, as I discussed in my blog on saturated fat, this is not the case. Saturated fat can be very beneficial to our bodies. It is the most stable of all the fats, it contains vital nutrients, it can help with metabolism, digestion, thyroid function, and liver detoxification. Once we remove the saturated fat from milk, what we are left with is cheap sugar water with a little protein. The milk fat contains vitamin A and D, and is needed for proper vitamin absorption. Remove the fat, you remove the nutrients…as to why the government has to add them back in.

Lactose Intolerance.

For many years, it was almost en vogue to be lactose intolerant. Now gluten intolerance seems to be the new hip “intestinal issue”. Still, many people are claiming they have a hard time breaking down the lactose (milk sugar) in milk because they are no longer producing the enzyme lactase. This ends up giving them all sorts of problems like gas, upset stomach, cramps, and bloating. The enzyme lactase is needed to break down the milk sugar lactose. Lactase is produced in the microvilli of the small intestine, and is released once lactose enters the intestines. The problem starts when the gut and intestines become inflamed and damaged (usually happens over time with the consumption of alcohol, drugs, PUFAs, grains, processed foods, additives, etc.) and lactase production shuts down. When this happens, lactose cannot be broken down and what we develop is intolerance to anything containing lactose.

So why not just consume lactose-free products?

Well, you could do this, but there is a reason milk contains the milk sugar lactose. Lactose is needed in helping calcium get absorbed by your body and into the bones. Yes, milk sugar is needed for optimal calcium absorption into the right areas (bones, not arteries). A better idea would be to heal the gut and slowly start adding dairy back into the diet. According to Dr. Ray Peat, you can heal the gut and intestines of lactose intolerance in as little as two weeks. Peat says you may want to try adding a small amount of additive-free cheese first, and then start adding in a little whole organic, grass-fed milk over time.

As you can see, there is more to Got milk? than meets the eye. Yes, milk can be considered bad for us. But given the right quality of milk, with the right person, in the right amounts, milk can be very beneficial. Personally, I drink milk every day. For me, the benefits of milk far outweigh any negatives.

Not only is milk a complete food (contains fats, proteins and carbs), but it contains CLA, Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Phosphorus, and Vitamins A, B2, B12, and D. I would suggest, if you are going to start adding in milk to your diet, purchase the best source available.

My personal selections are:

1) Raw (non-homogenized, non-pasteurized), grass-fed, organic whole milk is best (no additives)

2) Pasteurized, non homogenized, grass-fed, organic whole milk (no additives)

3) Pasteurized and homogenized organic, grass-fed whole milk (no additives)

4) Pasteurized and homogenized organic, grass-fed 2% or 1% milk

Remember, the less processing, additives, and degradation your milk has gone through, the more healthful this food will be for you. Quality is king!

Your Optimal Health Coach,

Kate

“Disclaimer:  I am an exercise physiologist, personal trainer, nutritional and lifestyle coach, not a medical doctor.  I do not diagnose, prescribe for, treat or claim to prevent, mitigate or cure any human disease or physical problem. I do not provide diagnosis, care treatment or rehabilitation of individuals, nor apply medical, mental health or human development principles.  I do not prescribe prescription drugs nor do I tell you to discontinue them.  I provide physical and dietary suggestions to improve health and wellness and to nourish and support normal function and structure of the body.  If you suspect any disease please consult your physician.”

References:

  1. A. Aro et al, Kuopio University, Finland; Bougnoux, P, Lavillonniere F, Riboli E. “Inverse relation between CLA in adipose breast tissue and risk of breast cancer. A case-control study in France.” Inform 10;5:S43, 1999)
  2. Jensen, S. K. “Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol into cows’ milk.” J Dairy Res 66, no. 4 (1999): 511-22. )
  3. Dhiman, T. R., G. R. Anand, et al. (1999). “Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets.” J Dairy Sci 82(10): 2146-56
  4. Riserus, U., P. Arner, et al. (2002). “Treatment with dietary trans10cis12 conjugated linoleic acid causes isomer-specific insulin resistance in obese men with the metabolic syndrome.” Diabetes Care 25(9): 1516-21.
  5. Dr. Ray Peat: “Milk in context: allergies, ecology, and some myths”,  “Calcium and Disease: Hypertension, organ calcification, & shock, vs. respiratory energy”
  6. Ron Schmid, ND; The Untold Story or Milk
  7. Josh Rubin; East West Healing and Performance; www.eastwesthealing.com

 

The Great Egg Debate

Much like the milk and meat controversy, the egg debate has been going on for years. One day, eggs are a major power protein. The next day, they are as bad for you as cigarette smoking. Just last month, national headlines reported, “Egg yolks almost as bad as smoking”, “Eggs Are Nearly as Bad for Your Arteries as Cigarettes”, and finally, “What do egg yolks and cigarettes have in common?” We are once again left confused, and wondering if that three-egg omelet is really a good idea after all?

Recently, a research study by Dr. David Spence, a professor at Western University of Ontario Canada, proclaimed that eating egg yolks regularly (at least 4.5/week) was 2/3 as bad as smoking. Yes, you heard it: eating eggs could kill you almost as fast as puffing away on a pack of Marlboros.

Dr. Spence questioned 1,231 elderly men and women from the London Health Science Center, who were recovering stroke patients, on their egg consumption, smoking habits, medications and other lifestyle habits. Ultrasound was then used to measure the amount of plaque build-up in each of the patients.

The study found that those who ate more egg yolks per week had almost 2/3 the plague build-up of heavy smokers. The study showed that those who smoked the most and ate the most egg yolks had the most plaque build-up. In comparison, those who smoked the least and ate the least amount of yolks had far less plaque build up. The study also concluded that those who smoked the most also ate the most egg yolks. Apparently, in this study, it seems that egg yolk eaters had a few other bad habits other than just eating eggs. Which, in my opinion, should have made Dr. Spence look deeper into other causation factors as to why egg-yolk eaters had increased plaque build-up.

To really judge if eggs are the death trap Dr. Spence makes them out to be, we need to look at a few possible problems with his study…

1. The questionnaire

Dr. Spence used a questionnaire asking, based on the average per week, throughout your entire life, how many eggs have you consumed each year (“egg-yolk-years”)? Now, I don’t know about you, but I can barely remember what I ate last week. So I am not too sure these elderly stroke patients have a clear memory of their dietary habits for the last 50-70 years. Studies that actually follow patients through out their growing years, and survey them yearly or a few times a year, will show far more accurate results. Asking elderly recovering stroke patients to recall 50 years of eating habits seems a little absurd. Although I am sure these patients did the best they could, I’ll bet there were a few inaccuracy in their answers.

2. Selection bias

All of the people questioned were patients of a vascular clinic and were in recovery for a stroke or mini-stroke. These patients had already demonstrated a tendency toward artery blockage. According to Dr. Joseph Raffaele, “Even if it is true that egg yolks cause an increase in plaque area in people who are proven to be plaque formers, that doesn’t necessarily mean that it will cause it in the general population. What they should have done was compare the egg consumption and carotid plaque of the clinic subjects to that of a group that hadn’t had any clinical evidence of atherosclerosis. Indeed, this study suffers from the classic research flaw known as selection bias.”

3. Correlation is not causation

Let’s say all 1,231 patients have memories like an elephant and can remember exactly their egg-yolk-years. How do we really know it’s the eggs that caused the plaque? All we really know is those that had more plaque ate more eggs. We also know that those who ate more eggs, smoked more too. Maybe those who ate more eggs just had more bad habits. Maybe those who ate more eggs also ate more bacon, more white bread, more pancakes, more vegetable oil, or maybe they just ate more food. None of these questions were asked in the study. Since Dr. Spence was looking for an egg-correlation, why would he care about all this other non-important information? We must remember, just because there is a correlation between two things does not mean one causes the other. It just means there is a correlation and maybe we should ask more questions.

4. Like…What kind of eggs were they eating?

In my eyes, the quality of the egg is very important when it comes to health. Pastured-organic eggs from chickens fed worms and grass are going to produce a far different egg than a conventionally-farmed chicken living in a battery cage (small chicken cages) being fed soy and grains. In fact, in a 2008 study, Dr. Niva Shapira demonstrated how the diet of egg-laying hens could change the nutritional quality of the eggs. Dr. Shapira fed one group of hens a diet high in Omega-6 polyunsaturated fats (corn and soy), while the other group of hens received a diet low in Omega-6 fats and additional anti-oxidants. Dr. Shapira showed how eating two high corn-soy eggs a day elevated oxidized LDL (bad) cholesterol by 40% in normal, healthy individuals. The individuals who ate two low Omega-6 eggs a day had normal levels of oxidized LDL cholesterol. The Spence study did not clarify what kind of eggs any of these individuals were eating. So is it really the eggs that had a negative effect on the body or is it the crap the hens were eating that had the negative effect? Hmmmm?

5. How did they cook their eggs?

Three eggs cooked in vegetable oil (which is high in polyunsaturated fats/PUFA) vs. three eggs cooked in coconut oil are going to produce an entirely different effect on your body. As I have expressed time and time again, PUFA’s oxidize easily under high temperatures and within the presence of oxygen. Coconut oil, which is a protective saturated fat, is much more stable. According to Dr. Ray Peat:

“When oxidized polyunsaturated oils, such as corn oil or linoleic acid, are added to food, they appear in the blood lipids, where they accelerate the formation of cholesterol deposits in arteries (Staprans, et al., 1994, 1996).

Stress accelerates the oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the body, so people who consume unsaturated vegetable oils will have some oxidized cholesterol in their tissues.”

In addition, overcooking the yolks can oxidize the cholesterol in the egg. Runny yolks are usually considered the best alternative when preparing your eggs. So if you are not into eating raw eggs in the morning, soft boiling, sunny side up, or poached eggs are best.

Essentially, what all this means is it may not be the eggs themselves causing the plaque build-up but the addition of certain cooking oils, or the overcooked yolk, that could be contributing to increased oxidized cholesterol in the arteries.

6. Did the patients exercise?

This is a very important question Dr. Spence left out of his study. Why is it important? Because we now know that exercise decreases the chances of artery blockage and other heart issues. Maybe the people who ate fewer eggs also exercised more. So maybe it was not the eggs at all, but maybe the lack of exercise that led to the increased arterial blockage. Of course, I am making some guesses here. But we have to consider everything when making such a strong claim.

7. Thyroid and liver health.

The health of your thyroid and liver plays an important role in cholesterol plaque build-up in your arteries. Your thyroid is responsible for producing thyroxine (T4) and a small amount of Triiodothyronine or T3(the active form of thyroid) in the body. Most of T4 is converted into T3 in your liver. T3 is responsible for converting cholesterol to all your steroidal hormones. Without T3, cholesterol cannot be converted, which can lead to a cholesterol back up and increased cholesterol levels. Increased cholesterol is a major marker for hypothyroidism. This back-up could lead to higher levels of oxidized cholesterol if healthy levels of the thyroid hormone are not met.

“Although cholesterol is protective against oxidative and cytolytic damage, the chronic free radical exposure will oxidize it. During the low cholesterol turnover of hypothyroidism, the oxidized variants of cholesterol will accumulate, so cholesterol loses its protective functions.”

–Dr. Ray Peat.

Let us remember cholesterol is protective, is part of our immune system, and is essential for our bodies to live. The liver produces 80% of our serum cholesterol, the other 20% comes from our diet. A recent study from Harvard Medical School showed that dietary cholesterol has little effect on serum cholesterol. Our body self-regulates: if we do not consume cholesterol, our bodies will make it. Therefore, whether the cholesterol comes from our diet or from our own liver, it will rise when we are in a hypothyroid state. Thus, the great egg is getting all the blame when, in all reality, it may be the health of the patient’s thyroid and liver that is more of a contributing factor.

Who knew we had to look at so many factors?

To be honest, there was so much wrong with this study that I am surprised it actually got published. Yet, studies and claims like this are published every day. Trust me, I read a lot of research articles. And for every article I read supporting a claim, I’ll read another one saying the exact opposite. The truth is most studies testing foods have problems, whether it’s the population’s health, the use of animals, a questionnaire, a meta-analysis, the quality of the food being tested, other foods being eaten at the same time, the length of the study, who is paying for the study, research bias, patients’ memory and honesty, or the overall interpretation of the results. Ugh. It can definitely get a little frustrating when trying to decide what to put in your mouth. Knowing all this, I am sure you are still wondering… “Should I be eating eggs?”

Well, here is my take…

Egg Nutrition

Eggs contain carotenoids, vitamins A, E, D and K, calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, thiamin, B6, folate, B12, pantothenic acid, choline, potassium, magnesium, copper, manganese, selenium, and are a complete protein. Most of the nutrients, all of the fat and cholesterol and about 50% of the protein is found in the yolk of the egg. In fact, every part of the egg, including the egg-shell can be eaten for its nutritional content. The egg-shell is an amazing source of Calcium. For such a little amount of food, the egg is a powerhouse full of nutrition.

Egg Research

There, of course, have been plenty of studies demonstrating that eating 1-2 eggs/day does not affect plaque build-up in healthy adults. The fourteen-year Nurses study and the eight-year Health Professional Follow study documented the eating habits of over 120,000 men and women collectively. Both studies concluded that eating one egg/day was very unlikely to have a substantial impact on cardiovascular disease or stroke in healthy individuals.

When the body is working optimally and you are taking care of yourself by eating the right foods and exercising, I think consuming eggs regularly is far more healthful to your diet than harmful. Therefore, when deciding to make eggs a part of our daily diet, I would take into consideration the following things:

1. Hens Diet

Be aware of the health and diet of the chickens/hens producing the eggs. Eggs can add value to your diet if they come from a healthy source. Be aware of tricky words food manufacturers use on their egg cartons–words like, “vegetarian diet”, “natural”, and “free-roaming”. Each of these means very little. If possible, buy your eggs from a local retailer at a farmers’ market or direct from the farm. Eggs should be organic, pastured- raised, corn- and soy-free.

2. Cooking style

When preparing your eggs, leave the yolk runny and cook them in the right oils (coconut, butter or ghee). These oils are all saturated fats. They do not oxidize under high heats like PUFA’s and MUFA’s (monounsaturated).

3. Restaurant eating

When eating out at restaurants, limit your egg consumption. Almost all eggs prepared in a restaurant are NOT pastured-organic raised. Almost all eggs cooked in a restaurant will be cooked in some sort of vegetable oil. If you decide to eat eggs at your favorite restaurant, ask for poached eggs or hard-boiled eggs. These will be the safest.

4. Side dishes

Take into consideration the other things you are eating with the eggs. A cup of fruit or pulp-free OJ is a nice complement. A few pieces of bread, bacon and pancakes are not the best of side dishes. Eggs are not a miracle food. They can add to your health or take from your health, depending on what you eat with them.

5. YOUR health

Look at your overall health. If you are hypothyroid, diabetic, prone to heart disease or arteriosclerosis, I would limit the amount of eggs in your diet until you have worked on healing your body and metabolism. If you are a healthy individual, who exercises and eats healthfully, then I say don’t be afraid to eat an egg or two on a daily basis.

Eggs are an important food and should not be avoided. However, you have to be conscious of your egg selection, how you are preparing them, how many you are eating, and the state of your health. Also, we must remember you cannot believe everything you read and everything you hear in the news or on the internet. Question everything (including me), do your own research, and find out what resonates with you. Health and healing are so individualized, what is working for your neighbor may have the opposite effect on you–another great reason to be taking full responsibility of taking care of yourself!

Happy Learning!

Your Optimal Health Coach,

Kate

“Disclaimer:  I am an exercise physiologist, personal trainer, nutritional and lifestyle coach, not a medical doctor.  I do not diagnose, prescribe for, treat or claim to prevent, mitigate or cure any human disease or physical problem. I do not provide diagnosis, care treatment or rehabilitation of individuals, nor apply medical, mental health or human development principles.  I do not prescribe prescription drugs nor do I tell you to discontinue them.  I provide physical and dietary suggestions to improve health and wellness and to nourish and support normal function and structure of the body.  If you suspect any disease please consult your physician.”

References:

1. Niva Shapira, Joseph Pinchasov. Modified Egg Composition To Reduce Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidizability: High Monounsaturated Fatty Acids and Antioxidants versus Regular Highn−6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2008; 56 (10): 3688 DOI: 10.1021/jf073549r

2. J. David Spence, David J.A. Jenkins, Jean Davignon. Egg yolk consumption and carotid plaque. Atherosclerosis Volume 224, Issue 2 , Pages 469-473, October 2012

3. Staprans I, Rapp JH, Pan XM, Hardman DA, Feingold KR. Oxidized lipids in the diet accelerate the development of fatty streaks in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1996 Apr;16(4):533-8.

4. Staprans I, Rapp JH, Pan XM, Kim KY, Feingold KR. Oxidized lipids in the diet are a source of oxidized lipid in chylomicrons of human serum. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994 Dec;14(12):1900-5

5. Kummerow FA, Kim Y, Hull J, Pollard J, Ilinov P, Drossiev DL, Valek J. The influence of egg consumption on the serum cholesterol level in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1977; 30:664-73.

6. Dawber TR, Nickerson RJ, Brand FN, Pool J. Eggs, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36:617-25

7. Qureshi AI, Suri FK, Ahmed S, Nasar A, Divani AA, Kirmani JF. Regular egg consumption does not increase the risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Med Sci Monit 2007; 13:CR1-8.

8. Jones PJ, Pappu AS, Hatcher L, Li ZC, Illingworth DR, Connor WE. Dietary cholesterol feeding suppresses human cholesterol synthesis measured by deuterium incorporation and urinary mevalonic acid levels. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996; 16:1222-8.

9. Dr. Joseph Raffaele. THE CANADIAN YOLK STUDY’S SCRAMBLED SCIENCE

Raffaele Reports. 25 August 2012

10. Frank B. Hu, MD; Meir J. Stampfer, MD; Eric B. Rimm, ScD; JoAnn E. Manson, MD; Alberto Ascherio, MD; Graham A. Colditz, MD; Bernard A. Rosner, PhD; Donna Spiegelman, ScD; Frank E. Speizer, MD; Frank M. Sacks, MD; Charles H. Hennekens, MD; Walter C. Willett, MD. A Prospective Study of Egg Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Women . Jama April 21, 1999, Vol 281, No. 15 >

FREE

11. McNamara DJ. The impact of egg limitations on coronary heart disease risk: do the numbers add up? J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5 Suppl):540S-548S.

12. Harvard School of Public Health: The Nutrition Source: Eggs and Heart Diseasehttp://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/eggs/#1

13. Cheryl Long and Tabitha Alterman, “Meet Real Free Range Eggs”

October/November 2007 http://www.motherearthnews.com/Real-Food/2007-10-01/Tests-Reveal-Healthier-Eggs.aspx#ixzz27yFbfsJn

14. Zazpe I, Beunza JJ, Bes-Rastrollo M, Warnberg J, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Benito S, Vázquez Z, Martínez-González MA; SUN Project Investigators. Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in the SUN Project. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun;65(6):676-82. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

15. Eguchi E, Iso H, Tanabe N, Wada Y, Yatsuya H, Kikuchi S, Inaba Y, Tamakoshi A; Japan Collaborative Cohort Study Group. Healthy lifestyle behaviours and cardiovascular mortality among Japanese men and women: the Japan collaborative cohort study. Eur Heart J. 2012 Feb;33(4):467-77.

16. Ho SS, Dhaliwal SS, Hills AP, Pal S. The effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, resistance or combination exercise training on cardiovascular risk factors in the overweight and obese in a randomized trial. BMC Public Health. 2012 Aug 28;12(1):704. [Epub ahead of print]

17. Saremi A, Asghari M, Ghorbani A. Effects of aerobic training on serum omentin-1 and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese men. . J Sports Sci. 2010 Jul;28(9):993-8

18. Dr. Ray Peat. www.RayPeat.com. Cholesterol, longevity, intelligence, and health.